References for Introduction

  • Booth, D., D. Hartley, and R. Jackson. 2002. Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. J. Am. Water Resources Association 38:835-845.
  • Brezonik, P.L., and T.H. Stadelmann. 2002. Analysis and predictive models of stormwater runoff volumes, loads, and pollutant concentration from watersheds in the Twin Cities metropolitan area, Minnesota, USA. Water Research 36:1743-1757.
  • Kaushal, S. S., P.M. Groffman, G.E. Likens, K.T. Belt, W.P. Stack, V.R. Kelly, L.E. Band, and G.T. Fisher. 2005. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:13517-13520.
  • Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). 2003. Minnesota Rule 7050.0222. Pages Specific standards of quality and purity for class 2 waters of the state; aquatic life and recreation. Minnesota Pollution Control Website:
  • Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). 2010. Minnesota’s Impaired Waters and Total Maximum Daily Loads. .
  • Minnesota Stormwater Steering Committee. 2005. The Minnesota Stormwater Manual. Developed by Emmons and Olivier Resources for the Stormwater Steering Committee, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency., St. Paul, MN.
  • Novotny, E.V., A.R. Sander, O. Mohseni, and H.G. Stefan. 2009. Chloride ion transport and mass balance in a metropolitan area using road salt, Water Resour. Res., 45, W12410, doi:10.1029/2009WR008141.
  • Novotny, E.V., D. Murphy, and H.G. Stefan. 2008. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt. Science of The Total Environment, 406 (1-2): p. 144.
  • Paul, J., and J. Meyer. 2001. Streams in the urban landscape. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 32:333-365.
  • Pitt, R. 2002. Receiving Water Impacts Associated with Urban Runoff. In: D. Hoffman, B. Rattner, J. Burton, B.S., and J. Cairns, J., editors. Handbook of Ecotoxicology, 2nd Edition. CRC Lewis, Boca Raton, FL. 
  • Pitt, R. A. Maestre, A. and Morquecho, R. 2004. The National Stormwater Quality Database (NSQD, version 1.1). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alabama,
  • Robbins, R.W., J.L. Glicker, D.M. Bloem, and B.M. Niss. 1991. Effective watershed management for surface water supplies. J. Am. Water Works Assoc December: 34-44.
  • Scheuler, T. 2000a. The importance of imperviousness. In: T. Scheuler and H. K. Holland, editors. The Practice of Watershed Protection. Center for Watershed Protection, Ellicott City, MD.
  • Steuer, J., W. Selbig, N. Hornewer, and J. Prey. 1997. Sources of contamination in an urban basin in Marquette, Michigan, and an analysis of concentrations, loads, and data quality, Middleton, WI. Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4242, U.S. Geological Suvey, Madison, WI.
  • U.S. EPA. 1983. Results of the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. WH-554, Water Planning Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • U.S. EPA. 1992. Environmental impacts of stormwater discharges: a national profile. EPA 841-R-92-001, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • U.S. EPA. 2000. National Water Quality Inventory, 305(b) Report. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
  • Walker, W. W. 2000. Evaluation of Water Quality Controls in the St. Paul Water Utility Watershed: Analysis of 1984-1999 Monitoring Data. St. Paul Regional Water Services, St. Paul.
  • Wang, L., J. Lyons, and P. Kanehl. 2003. Impacts of urban land cover on trout streams in Wisconsin and Minnesota. Trans. Am. Fisheries Soc. 132:825-839.
  • Waschbusch, R.J., W.R. Selbig, and R.T. Bannerman. 1999. Sources of phosphorus in stormwater and street dirt from two urban residential basins in Madison, Wisconsin, 1994-95. Water-Resources Investigations 99-4021, U.S. Geological Survey, Madison, WI.
  • Weiss, P.T., A.J. Erickson and J.S. Gulliver. 2007. Cost and pollutant removal of storm-water treatment practices. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 133(3), 218-229.
  • Wenck. 2003. Surface water pathogen study. Prepared for the Minnehaha Watershed District, Plymouth, Minnesota.
  • Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). 2007. Impaired Waters 303(d) List: Accessed April 11, 2007.

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